Since the hypotheses being tested concern shape, it was necessary to control for size: this was done by rescaling each model so that the volume of cranium and mandible were the same as for the Mecistops cataphractus model [29], [33], which was intermediate between the smallest and largest specimens used in the analysis. The eigenscores from PCA represent relative shape variation and are used here as descriptors of shape as defined by Kendall [38], and is all that remains after rotation, translation and scale are removed; see [38], [39], [40]. Short mandibular symphyses perform well under loads used for feeding upon large prey, but elongate symphyses incur high strains under equivalent loads, underlining the structural constraints to prey size in the longirostrine morphotype. Specimens are plotted according to their respective PC2 values (centre right). Terrestrial predators can use the weight of the prey to restrain it whilst the predator rips off chunks; the predator’s forelimbs can help secure the carcass, whilst shearing dentition produces the forces required to reduce prey. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g027, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t017. The presence of elongated mandibular symphyses in longirostrine species in many unrelated groups suggests possible physical constraints on prey capture. Yes Why the Long Face, 1995 album by Big Country "Why the Long Face" (song), 2003 song by Manitoba/Caribou; This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Why the Long Face. Note the strong correlation between bite and overall length, shake and symphyseal length, and twist and angle. The AICc-best EM of shake strain was the first principal component from the geometric morphometric analysis (PC1) (Table 15). No great horse lover myself but put them in the right artistic context and they make a big contribution to a room. Why do forms with shorter rostra lack a long symphysis? here. Strain in the second set of simple beam models, plotted against morphological variables (from top) length, symphyseal length, angle, and width, for biting (left), shaking (middle) and twisting (right) loads. Principal component 1 (PC1) versus principal component 2 (PC2) from geometric morphometric analysis Taxon abbreviations: Ot, Osteolaemus tetraspis; Cm, Crocodylus moreletii; Cng, Crocodylus novaeguineae; Ci, Crocodylus intermedius; Cj, Crocodylus johnstoni; Mc, Mecistops cataphractus; Ts, Tomistoma schlegelii. Why is free speech something you can be murdered for in Western Europe? But I also know that much of my self-esteem issues originate from years of mockery from the boys at school who teased me mercilessly about my "horse face". Bite force is for rear bites, in vivo bite force data from Erickson [47]. Mouth breathers, like yours truly, on the other hand, rest their tongues on their lower palate to allow air in, resulting in vertical growth and a high, narrow upper palate. Given that we have all been kids at some point, and we all breathe, surely this is something that should be common knowledge? Small discrepancies between FEA and analytical results from beam theory (as with CT cross sections) are informative about the influence of factors such as mesh and geometry resolution, and material properties, on both methods. AICc scores are shown in Tables 14, 15, 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g017, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t010. However, if a small number of simple measurements can provide insight into the biomechanics of that group, then those insights may be generalised to the other groups. In people with VME, the lower third is significantly longer than the rest of the face. This causes the maxilla to grow long instead of wide, increasing the distance between the top of the teeth and the base of the nose, resulting in, as this website helpfully explains, "a disturbing degree of gingival show, resulting in a 'gummy smile'.". For a given section, the mechanical response will depend only on the length of the whole mandible; the proportion of the mandible that is formed by the symphysis will not affect the area moment of inertia in the dorso-ventral direction (Ixx, about the horizontal x axis), and so symphyseal length is irrelevant. Taxa shown are Caiman latirostris (A), Gavialis gangeticus (B), Feresa attenuata (C), Platanista gangetica (D), Leptocleidus capensis (E), Dolichorhynchops osborni (F), Temnodontosaurus eurycephalus (G), Ophthalmosaurus icenicus (H), Suchodus brachyrhynchus (I), Steneosaurus gracilirostris (J). laterally). Within a mandible, these measurements co-vary and so their effects cannot be explored independently of each other. Note the strong correlation between bite and overall length, shake and symphyseal length, and twist and angle. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g019. Background Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine), through to short snouted (brevirostrine) morphologies. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873, http://graphics.idav.ucdavis.edu/research/EvoMorph, Explore the mechanics of beam models of the mandible under. The solid meshes of the cranium and mandible from each specimen were imported into Strand7 and form the basis for assembly of the FE models. Phylogram (right) shows poor correlation of specimen PC2 scores with phylogeny. For multivariate quantification of shape, the surface mesh was imported into Landmark [20] as.PLY files and 22 landmarks were defined. Imagine finding out at my age that you have what is technically considered a facial deformity. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Favorite Answer The original punchline is 'Why the long face', with the double meaning of a bartender's generic comment on a person's sad face, and the actual literal long face of … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g002. What would I have looked like otherwise? While material properties for bone are considerably different to steel, the results indicate relative performance of each beam model; additionally, under assumed linear behaviour, stresses or strains in other materials can easily be calculated from a given result. For the FEMs, body mass was calculated from skull volume using the equation log10 body mass = log10 (skull volume x 0.9336+1.9763) using data from McHenry [29]. At the ripe age of 41, I have just been diagnosed with what is officially known as vertical maxillary excess (VME) with Class II malocclusion, but what also goes by the amusing, if decidedly unflattering moniker, long face syndrome. Building from the assumption (based upon theory but yet to be demonstrated empirically) that the dynamics of a rapid lateral sweep of the jaws during prey capture selects for a narrow rostrum and an elongate mandibular symphysis, we hypothesise that shorter symphyses of meso- and brevirostrine crocodilians are selected for by the mechanics of the shaking and twisting behaviours used in feeding on large prey, but not by the mechanics of biting (jaw adduction). If an elongate symphysis is the most effective morphology for reducing the drag incurred and/or increasing the rate of acceleration of the anterior part of the mandible during a rapid lateral sweep, then the absence of an elongate symphysis in meso- and brevirostrine taxa may be enforced by structural mechanics; i.e. Mesh optimisation and solid mesh generation was performed using Harpoon (SHARC). Jen notices that something is wrong and uses the expression 'why the long face?' Even though the present study focuses on mandibular biomechanics, crania were included within the model to provide accurate boundary conditions (i.e. It is bizarre to suddenly and unexpectedly discover, at this age, that what I had thought was just a genetic trait, was actually brought on by bad breathing habits as a child. The mandible was then meshed such that the average size of tetrahedral elements was approximately the same as the cranium, yielding 2.5 million tetrahedra (+/−10%) (Table 3) for the cranium and mandible combined. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g014. Barbara Gastel, Texas A&M ... impact on patient health and long … For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click READ MORE: * Scientists discover five genes that impact nose shape * Non-surgical nose jobs are real, but expensive * Thumbing a ride to the orthodontist. In the upper jaw, the anterior snout has an almost tubular section and this is mirrored by the symphyseal part of the lower jaw in longirostrine crocodilians; the formation of an elongate symphysis seems to be a configuration allowing a minimal diameter of the mandible, and can be explained by hydrodynamic and/or energetic criteria. Beam theory remains a useful tool for exploring biomechanics and our approach illustrates the possibility of moving away from post hoc examinations of complex models towards a priori predictions of the fundamental mechanics. We therefore used the 95% values of strain in each model [37] which provide a similar pattern of results as the mean, median, 75%, and 90% values but differ from the 100% (i.e. All four teeth (the fourth premaxillary pair from the cranium, and the fifth dentary pair from the mandible) were designated as ‘holding’ prey. For twisting (TeT) loads, strain is highest at the symphyseal-rami junction, again with the exception of the Tomistoma model where the highest strains are at the anterior end of the symphysis. This axis separates T. schlegelii with its very narrow mandible from the more robust mandibles of C. moreletii and O. tetraspis. Analyzed the data: CWW PDS CRM. Predicted bite force was consistent between volume scaled FEMs, correlating with outlever length. Note the strong correlation between volume-scaled bite force and outlever (D). (A), data for 82 specimens of crocodilian, data measured from photographs of museum skulls; regression line is based upon mean values for each species. long face A facial expression denoting sadness, dissappointment, or dissatisfaction. Peak strain under twist loads plotted against symphyseal length for beam (left) and FE (right) models. Would you believe that the way you breathe can change the way you look? Construction of the FEMs was based upon previously published protocols [24], [25], [26], [27], [28] and are summarised here. Within each species, the symphyseal length (as a proportion of mandible length) remains consistent. In addition to swimming, feeding behaviour operates under strong constraints based on the fundamental fluid dynamics of water that apply to ram, filter, and suction feeders [6]. 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